By: J. Oswald Sanders
1 Tim 3:1 ” To aspire to leadership is an honorable ambition.”
By that sin fell angels, how can a man then,
The image of his Maker, hope to profit by’t?”
(Wolsey to Cromwell – Shakespeare)
Psalm 75:6-7 “No one from the east or the west or from the desert can exalted a man. But it is God who judges: He brings one down, he exalts another.”
Ez. 22:30 “I looked for a man…”the world needs church leaders who are authoritive, spiritual, & sacrificial.
Chapter 3 – The Master’s Principle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Mark 10:43-44 ” Whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant and whomever wants to be first must be slave of all.
God always called the great men of faith His “servant”… Never His “leader”. To be useful to God as a leader, I must first and foremost be His servant.
The Sovereignty Principle: God determines those who are to be leaders (Mark 10:40)
The Suffering Principle: Leadership in Gods Kingdom requires sharing in the cup of Christ (Mark 10:38)
The Spirit of Servanthood (from Isaiah 42):
1. Dependance on God – vs.1 “My servant, whom I uphold!”
2. Approval of God – vs.1 “My servant, whom I uphold! My chosen one…”
3. Modesty – vs. 2 “He will not shout…”, (Matt 4:5 Jesus’ temptations)
4. Empathy – vs.3 “bruised reed he will not break”, (Matt 25:45 “the least of these”)
5. Optimism – vs. 4 “He will not falter or be discouraged till he establishes justice…”
6. Anointing – vs 1 “I will put my spirit on Him”, (Acts 10:38 “God anointed Jesus…”)
Chapter 4 – Natural and Spiritual Leadership – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“When I came to you… My message and my preaching were not with wise and persuasive words, but with a demonstration of the Spirit’s power.” 1 Cor 2:1,4
Leaders move others: “There are only three kinds of people- those who are immovable, those who are moveable and those who move them.” Li Hung Chang
Seven Qualities Necessary for a Military Leader (Montgomery):
1. Avoid getting swamped in details
2. Not be petty
3. Not be pompous
4. Know how to select people to fit the task
5. Trust others to do a job without the leader’s meddling
6. Be capable of clear directions
7. Inspire confidence
Eight Qualities to Look for in Potential Leaders (John Mott):
1. Does little things well
2. Has learned to focus on priorities
3. Uses leisure well
4. Has intensity
5. Knows to exploit momentum
6. Is growing
7. Overcomes discouragement and “impossible” situations
8. Understands his/her own weaknesses
Acts 6:3 “…choose seven men from among you who are known to be full of the Spirit and wisdom. We will turn this responsibility over to them.”
Chapter 5 – Can You Become a Leader? – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“Send seven men to explore the land of Canaan… From each ancestral tribe send one of its leaders.” Numbers 13:2
Great list on pages 34-36 to self assess my own qualities as a leader.
Chapter 6 – Insights on Leadership from Paul – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“Now an overseer must be above reproach, the husband of but one wife, temperate, self-controlled, respectable, hospitable, able to teach, not given to drunkenness, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, not a lover of money. He must manage his own house well and see that his children give obey him with proper respect… He must not e a recent convert, or he may become conceited… He must also have a good reputation with outsiders.” 1 Tim 3:2-7
A. Social Qualifications: Example is more potent then precept.
B. Moral Qualifications: A leader can not allow a secret indulgence that would undermine public witness… Inner character comes from daily discipline.”
C. Mental Qualifications: I must have a sound mind: in control of every part of my personality, habits and passions.
D. Personality Qualifications: I must “remember good rather than evil, the good one has received rather than the good one has done.” (Aristotle)
E. Domestic Qualifications:
F. Maturity: “It is the mark of a grown up man rather than a callow youth that he finds his center of gravity wherever he happens to be at the moment, and however much he longs for the object of his desire, it canning prevent him from staying at his post and doing his duty.” (Dietrich Bonhoeffer)
“So I exhort the elders among you, as a fellow elder and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, as well as a partaker in the glory that is going to be revealed: shepherd the flock of God that is among you, exercising oversight, not under compulsion, but willingly, as God would have you; not for shameful gain, but eagerly; not domineering over those in your charge, but being examples to the flock. And when the chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the unfading crown of glory. Likewise, you who are younger, be subject to the elders. Clothe yourselves, all of you, with humility toward one another, for “God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble. Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God so that at the proper time he may exalt you, casting all your anxieties on him, because he cares for you.” 1 Peter 5:1-7
“a leader is one who has learned to obey a discipline imposed from without, and has then taken on a more rigorous discipline from within.”
“Many who aspire to leadership fail because they have never learn to follow.”
“work while others waste time, study while others snooze, pray while others daydream.”
“The emerging leader eats right, stands tall, and prepares himself to wage spiritual warfare.”
Powerful and permanent influence comes from seeing more and farther than others
Said of Douglas Thorton, “You are always looking at the end of things…”
I must see as Jesus sees… Jesus saw in Peter the rock of the Church.
“Wisdom is the faculty of making the use of knowledge, a combination of discernment, judgement, sagacity, and similar powers.”
Colossians 1:9 – prayer that God would fill with all spiritual wisdom and knowledge.
The ability to make swift clear decisions when all the facts are in is crucial
Martin Luther before trial, “I was afraid of nothing: God can make one desperately bold.”
2 Tim 1:7 – the Spirit has given us a spirit of power… Not timidity
Leaders must remain bold and courageous during a crisis… Leaders must always stay the course
Matt 20:25-27 – Christ instructs disciples to pursue servanthood.
A spiritual leader is first and foremost a servant.
John 3:30… “He must increase and I must decrease” is the motto of the true leader
7. Integrity & Sincerity
2 Tim 1:3 – the necessity of integrity
2 Cor 2:17 – speak with all sincerity before God.
Chapter 9 – More Essential Qualities of Leadership – – – – – – – – – – – – –
” Deacons likewise are to be men of respect, sincere, not indulging in much wine, and not pursuing dishonest gain. They must keep hold of the deep truths of the faith with a clear conscience. They dust first be tested; and if there is nothing against them, let them serve as deacons.” 1 Timothy 3:8-10
“The leader shows patience by not running to far ahead of his followers and thus discouraging them. While keeping ahead, he stays near enough for them to keep him in sight and her his call forward. He is not so strong that he cannot show strengthen sympathy for the weakness of his fellow travelers.”
“You can measure leaders by the number and quality of their friends.”
“Leaders must draw out the best PGA people, friendship does that far better than prolonged argument or mere logic..”
“Rule by the heart. When reason and argument fails, fall back on the heart-genuine friendship.” John Mott
11. Tact and Diplomacy
Said of William Cary, “He has attained the happy art of ruling and overruling others without asserting his authority, or other feeling their subjection – and all is done wining the least appearance of design on his part.”
12. Inspirational Power
13. Executive Ability
14. The Therapy of Listening
“To get to the root of problems, a leader must develop into a skillful listener.”
“Genuine listening seeks to understand another without prejudgement.”
“listen often and long and talk short and seldom.”
“To be able to listen to others in a sympathetic and understanding manner is perhaps the most effective mechanism in the worked for getting along with people and tying up their friendship for good.” (Oliver Wendell Holmes)
Chapter 10 – Above All Else – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“Choose seen men from among you who are known to be full of the Spirit and wisdom… They chose Stephan, a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit.” Acts 6:3,5
“The Spirit’ great purpose is missions. Should that not be ours too?”
“Too Be filled wi the Holy Spirit means that the Christian voluntarily surrenders life and will to the Spirit.”
“No one whose senses have been exercised to know good or evil can but grieve over the sight of zealous souls seeking to be filled with the Holy Spirit while they are living in a state of moral carelessness and borderline sin. Whoever would be in dwelt by the Spirit must judge his life for any hidden iniquities. He must expel from his heart everything that is out of accord with the character of God as revealed by the Holy Scriptures… There can be no tolerance of evil, no laughing off the things that God hates.” (A.W. Tozer)
“The one called by God to spiritual leadership can be confident that the Holy Spirit has given him of her a necessary gifts for the service at hand.”
Chapter 11 – Prayer and Leadership – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“I urge then, first of all, that requests, prayers, intercession and thanksgiving be made for everyone…” 1 Timothy 2:1
“The spiritual leader should outpace he rest of the church, above all, in prayer.”
Martin Luther on busyness, “Work, work from early to late. In fact I have so much to do that I shall spend the first three hours in prayer.” This reminds me of “Too Busy Not to Pray” by Bill Hybells.
Jesus’ Example… He retired from his companions often to pray… He would go to a mountain or a desert to be alone to pray (Luke 5:16). He would do it early in the morning (Mark 1:35) and late at night… Sometimes praying through the night (Luke 6:12). Such must be my pursuit of prayer as well.
Prayer isn’t always easy… Epaphras wrestled (Col 4:12), Paul expresses the struggle in Col 2:1 (root Greek word is the same as the word for agony).
The Holy Spirit is the Master Teacher: Romans 8:26-28 He intercedes… “All effective prayer comes from the Spirit’s activity in our souls.” praying in the Spirit means praying only the same lines, about the same hints and in the same name as the Holy Spirit. Ephesians 6:18, “Give yourself wholly to prayer and entreaty; pray on every occasion in the power of the Spirit.”
2 Reasons to Pray in the Spirit:
1) The Holy Spirit is the Sphere and Atmosphere of the Christians Life
2) Prayer is a Superhuman Task that Demands More Than Human Power
2) Our mind’s ignorance – the Spirit knows the mind of God & gives clear conviction
3) We get sick or weak – the Spirit quickens our body and allows us to rise above
4) Satan’s opposition – the Spirit is an all powerful ally against this supernatural foePraying in the Spirit must be part of the spiritual leaders DAILY walk! Prayer allows us to enter into victory in the spiritual war… Failure to pray regularly prevents us from tasting and living in the victory afforded us by the cross.Jesus promised us, “I have given you authority… To overcome all the power of the enemy.” (Luke 10:19).Hudson Taylor said, “It is possible to move men, through God, by prayer alone.”Prayer requires practice…. Daily practice. It is learned only through practice.
“Prayer moves the arm, that moves the world, to bring deliverance down.” (Anonymous)
Chapter 12 – The Leader and Time – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“Make the best use of your time…” Ephesians 5:16
“The character and career of a young person depends on how he or she spends spare time.”
“The best use of one’s life is to spend it for something that will outlast it.” William James
On the topic of time wasting, J.H. Jowett commented, “the men to whom I most hopefully look for additional service are the busiest men.” efficiency is key… There is enough time in life to accomplish the whole of God’s will for our lives.
Parable of the Talents… Everyone had the same amount of time. (Luke 19)
Paul urges to redeem the time (Ephesians 5:16)
Chapter 13 – The Leader and Reading – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“When you come, bring… My scrolls, especially my parchments.” 2 Tim 4:13
“Reading make a full man; speaking, a ready man, writing, an exact man.” Bacon
“Give head to reading…” 1 Timothy 4:13
John Wesley’s Big Three Books = Imitation of Christ, Holy Living and Dying, and The Serious Call.
A.W. Tozer’s Favorite Authors = Bunyan, Addison, Milton, Dickens, Bacon
1. Why Read?
“Read to refill the wells of inspiration.” ~ Harold Ockenga
“Read not two contradict or confute, nor to believe or take for granted, nor to find ta and discourse, but to weigh & consider.” ~ Bacon
Charles Finney – Lectures of Revivals of Religion
2. What to Read.
“If a man is known by the company he keeps, so also his character is reflected in the books he reads.”
“A leader should neither be content with easy books nor satisfied with reading only in his specialty.”
“It is better that we should always tackle something a bit beyond us. We should always aim to reads something different – not only the writers with whom we agree, but those with whom we are ready to do battle. And let us not condemn them out of hand because they do not agree with us; their point of view challenges us to examine truth and to test their views against scripture… Don’t be afraid of new ideas – and don’t be carried away by them either.” Muriel Ormrod
3. How to Read.
“By reading we learn. by meditate on the themes of our reading we pluck the fruit from the tree of books and add nourishment to our minds and our ministries.”
• Read books thoroughly, master them
• read and re-read them
• peruse a good book several times
• make notes and analyses
• “Little learning and much pride comes of hasty reading.”
• “much, not many”
1. Fast Overview
2. Careful and paced… Taking notes
3. Later, revisit the book for a final overview…. Summarizing on the inside cover.
“A book is a channel for the flow of ideas from one mind to another.” it is not intended to be a terminus point for knowledge or information. Write, journal, tweet, teach, share and disseminate what you read.
Chapter 14 – Improving Leadership – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“If you are a leader, exert yourself.” Romans 12:8
Leadership improvement Consists of 3 Steps:
1. Recognize Weaknesses
2. Make Corrections
3. Cultivate Strengths
• Lacking clearly defined goals (that stretch, challenge and unify)
• Timid faith leading to hesitation
• Failure to show zeal… “Enthusiastic leaders generate enthusiastic followers”
• Reluctance to grasp and deal with difficult situations (hesitation)
• Sacrifice of depth for breadthExert Yourself:
Romans 12 = “offer” is “finished & done” tense followed by 36 present tense verbs.
“If called on to supply leadership, do it with zeal.”
“Does your leadership show the intensity typical of Jesus?”Keep at Boiling Point:
“Never be lacking in zeal, but keep your spiritual fervor, serving the Lord.” Romans 12:11 one translation states “kept at boiling point by the Holy Spirit.
Am I living “aglow with the Spirit”???
Bunyan’s Christian… Sees a fire that doesn’t go out when water is pour on it… Because someone else was pouring oil in the rear.Improving Leadership (Hudson Taylor Style):
1. Administration: improve the character of the work! Discover which departments are functioning below standards and remedy the defect.
2. Spiritual Tone: deepen the piety, devotion, and success of the worker. Water rises to the level of the source… And no higher.the spiritual health of the leadership group should be the primary concern.
3. Group Morale: remove stones of stumbling. When problems are neglected, morale drops and performance decreases. If a problem has a remedy, put it in place at once.
4. Personal Relationships: oil the wheels where they stick. “Some Workers prefer to administer, others want to love people. Only the latter are leaders.”
5. Problem Solving: amend what is defective. The leader must solve tough problems. “Creating problems is easy, solving them is difficult.”
6. Creative Planning: supplement what is lacking. “Criticizing plans is easier than creating them.””True leadership is always out in front.”
Chapter 15 – The Cost of Leadership – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“Can you drink the cup I drink or be baptized with the baptism I am baptized?” Mark 10:38
“Leadership in God’s kingdom requires us to be willing to pay a price higher than others are willing to pay.”
Achievement is bought on the time-payment plan, with a new installment required each day.”
The Costs of Leadership:
• Self Sacrifice – “A cross stands in the path of spiritual leadership…”
– “no cross, no leadership”
– the only thing Jesus showed after the cross was his scars
– scars are the authenticating marks of faithful discipleship and leadership
• Loneliness – “Life gets harder toward the summit” Nietzche
– “Because the leader must the ahead of his followers he lives with loneliness.”
– “Most of the worlds greatest souls have been lonely.” A.W. Tozer
• Fatigue – “The world is run by tired men.”
– Even Jesus grew weary in ministry and had to rest. (John 4:6)
– To change the generation, we must be willing to get up early and stay up late
– Fatigue is the price of leadership
• Criticism – “You must expect more criticism, for this comes with responsibility.”
– Brengle’s Response to Criticism: “Thank you… Will you pray for me?”
– Rebuke of a humble heart leads to self reflection and closeness with Jesus.
• Rejection – “He came unto His own, and His own received Him not.”
– the spiritual leader must be prepared to be rejected for the sake of Jesus
• Pressure & Perplexity – The more mature a leader, the less tangible guidance
– as a leader grows he becomes more dependent on discernment
Chapter 16 – Responsibilities of Leadership – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“Besides everything else, I face daily the pressure of my concern for all the churches.” 2 Corinthians 11:28
The Responsibility of Service
• a leaders sympathy fortifies and stimulates, it doesn’t soften & make weak.
• God doesn’t refer to leaders, but servants (my servant Moses)
• longevity & effectiveness requires discipline to maintain standards & conduct
• How to Discipline
1. Conduct a thorough and impartial hearing
2. Consider the overall benefits of the discipline to the work and the individual
3. Do it all in a spirit of love
4. Always keep spiritual restoration of the offender in view
5. Pray through process thoroughl
• The sheep must know the shepherds voice
• “Follow my example, as I follow Christ” 1 Cor. 11:1
• “More failure comes from excess of caution than from bold experiments…”
• “The frontiers of the kingdom of God were never advanced by people of caution.”Chapter 17 – Tests of Leadership – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“God tested Abraham” Genesis 22:1
“Then Jesus was led by the Spirit into the desert to be tempted by the devil.” Matt 4:1Everyone entrusted with spiritual authority can expect tests, temptations and trials along the way… They serve to purify and clarify leadership. Tests are meant to let us succeed, not fail. tests display progress.Types of Tests:
• Compromise – Lowering standard to reach agreement is always a step backwards
Often… Compromising on an ideal, value or truth will appear easy.
But compromising the truth is always a test that will determine commitment
• Ambition – All great leaders face this test
others will be ambitious to replace the leader the leader must endure this
The leader must not succumb to the drive for ambition… Or the ministry suffers
Prayer is a great remedy for ambition
• Impossible Situation – “How does a person face an impossible situation” tells a lot!
“A true leader steps forward to face baffling circumstances and complex probs”
“God delights to lead people, then in response to their trust, show them power”Hudson Taylor’s 3 Phases of Great Tasks for God: Impossible, Difficult, Done!
• Failure – Many great leaders live with an internal sense of failure
“The worth of man is measured by his life, not by failure under a peculiar trial.”
“no failure is final”
We can’t be right all the time… failures show us inadequacies & force humility.
Failure reminds us who is really in charge
• Jealousy – a leaders main concern must always be for Gods glory.
The person who fills a role appointed by God need not worry about rivals
“God will defend leaders He has chosen. He will honor, protect & vindicate.”
“God delights to lead people, then in response to their trust, show them power that matches every impossible situation.”
Chapter 18 – The Art of Delegation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – “He chose capable men from all Israel and made them leaders of the people… They served as judges for the people at all times. The difficult cases they brought to Moses. Exodus 18:25-26
Leaders must recognize capabilities and limitations for others and “fit each on into the job where he or she will do best.”
“To succeed in getting things done through ores is the highest type of leadership.” Dwight L. Moody
“In some cases, insisting on doing a job oneself is a result of simple conceit.”
Once a leader delegates he must show the utmost confidence! He people he has entrusted. The failure of a person delegated is a failure of the leader… Not the subordinate, for he has selected them.
When delegating have all expectations clearly written out so as to avoid any miscommunications.
Delegation Must involve sharing both responsibility but also authority if it is to have the best possible impact. Sharing authority speeds up action.
“God takes all responsibility for enabling His servants to do their work.”
“There is no virtue in doing more than our fair share of the work.”
“The sense of being watched destroys confidence.”
Chapter 19 – Replacing Leaders – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“Moses my servant is dead. Now then, you and all these people, get ready to cross the Jordan River, into the land I am about to give to them… As I was with Moses, so I will be with you.” Joshua 1:2,5
“No man, however gifted and devoted, is indispensable the work of the kingdom.”
“A leaders passing cuts his persona down to size… The time comes when his special contribution is not the need of the hour.”
“Joshua was better equipped to conquer Canaan than Moses.”
“A shift leadership also provides occasion of God to show His versatility in adjusting means to ends. his resources in any work He initiates are inexhaustible.”
Chapter 20 – Reproducing Leaders – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“The things you have heard me say in the presence of many witnesses entrust reliable men who will also be qualified to teach.” 2 Tim 2:2
“A leader’s responsibility to train others to lead. If he is to carryout his trust fully, the leader will devote time to training others to succeed and perhaps supersede him.”
“Leaders must multiply themselves by growing younger leaders, giving them full play and adequate outlet for their abilities.”
Blunders are the inevitable price for training leaders.
The leader should be more of a trainer and less of a performer.
The church needs saints and servants, not leaders… If we forget the priority of service, the entire idea of leadership becomes dangerous.
It took Jesus years to develop his leaders… It will take us the same or longer. This task requires careful thought, wise planning, endless patience and genuine Christian love.
The observant leader may discover latent talent in some quite unpromising people.
“If I failed to train other to do my work better than Ido, I have failed.” Frank Buchman
“Leadership training canning be done on mass scale. This requires patient, careful instruction, and prayerful, personal guidance over a considerable time. Disciples are not manufactured wholesale. They are produced one by one, because someone has taken the pains to discipline, to instruct, and enlighten, to nurture and traiin one that is younger.”
“…so that after I have preached to others, I myself will not be disqualified for the prize.” 1 Corinthians 9:27″Satan never fails to exploit the advantage in any area of weakness.1. Pride – the Lord detests all the proud of heart. (Prov 16:5)
• Conceit is a sin that makes God take second seat in our lives… Not good.
• Three Tests:
– The Test of Precedence: How do we react when another is selected?
– The Test of Sincerity: How do we respond when others identify our faults?
– The Test of Criticism: How do we respond to our critics.
• Pride is forgetting that everything we have is from God.
2. Egotism – Thinking or speaking of ones self rather then to God.
• Do I reflect the ugliness of egotism or the transfigured glory of Christ the Lord?
3. Jealousy – Describing the leader who is envious of rivals
• Moses responds to others prohesying, “I wish all the Lords people were prophets
• Gods work in others is to be encouraged, not snuffed out.
4. Popularity – Jesus said “Woe onto you when all men speak well of you.”
• Any fervor or loyalty people might have for the leader should be fastened to Jesus
• Popularity is the most dangerous spiritual state… It leads to easy to pride.
5. Infallibility – The belief that a veteran, discerning leader can’t be wrong.
• Leaders must have strength & decisiveness… But willing to concede when wrong
• Defering to others judgement is a sign of strength and will win allies.
• Followers lose confidence leaders who believe themselves to be infallible
6. Indespensiblity – Many leaders cling to authority after it should be passed to younger.
• We become less objective about our work as we get older.
7. Elation – getting to excited when things are good…
• discovering a balance and temperament through highs and lows is critical
8. Depression – getting to low when things are not good…
• learning to trust God when things are difficult is imperative for the spiritual leader
• Visual faith for the followers is imperative
• Not all of our goals and ideals for the work of God will be realized.
• “If successful don’t crow, if defeated don’t croak.” Samuel Chadwick
9. Prophet or Leader – a preacher ought to be primarily a prophet of God who preaches
• Preach as God bids… Without regard to results.
• If he seeks to be prophet and a leader, is apt to make a failure of both.
10. Disqualification – allowing lack of discipline to impact our effectiveness
• Paul was always concerned with not being disqualified (1 Cor 9:27)
• Paul references the failure of the body and suggests to guard thru self discipline
• Errors of doctrine or misjudgment of ethics are not the major concern…
• … The bodies passions are the biggest concerns… So disciplined moderation!Chapter 22 – The Leaders Nehemiah – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
“Remember me with favor, o my God.” Nehemiah 13:31Nehemiah Led through Character:
1. He was a man of prayer
2. He was a man of courage
3. He was a man of concern
4. He was a man of foresight
5. He was a man of caution
6. He was a man of decisiveness
7. He was a man of empathy
8. He was a man of realism
9. He was a man of responsibility
10. He was a man of administration
Nehemiah led through Effective Methods:
1. He raised morale
2. He built a culture of faith
3. He rekindled hope
4. He secured their cooperation
5. He corrected through conviction
6. He led through optimism
7. He directed the vision toward God
8. He deployed effective strategy
9. He listened to stories
10. He sympathized with suffering
11. He demonstrated the meaning and value of the work.
12. He organized well
13. He held Gods word as the standard
14. He got results
On courage, “Should a man like me run away? Or should one like me go into the temple to save his life? I will not go!” Nehemiah 6:11